In the golden age of casinos the mobsters or anyone associated with organized crime were blacklisted, or barred from casinos. Then came the known slot machine cheats, robber, scammers and eventually a term coined advantage players. Little was known about card counters til American mathematician Dr. Edward O. Thorp espoused on this subject and wrote “Beat the Dealer” in 1962. He outlined various betting and playing strategies to beat the game. His techniques are now considered obsolete as the casinos took counter-measures to negate his tactics.
History lore was that there was a blackbook with the list of all the banned players. It’s most likely a term used for anyone who’s simply not welcome to the casino for one reason or another. The book keeps pictures either obtained from a photo of the individual when detained or simply questioned and released from surveillance photos.
With the rise of card counters the casinos were vigilant in catching these advantage players. Some operated in organized crews like the notorious MIT students based on the film 21. Some operated in pairs or worked individually often wearing disguises.
While card counting was first discovered in 1962 the first case to be detected by the casinos wasn’t til decades later once the casinos caught on to discrepancies in betting increments, substantial losses on their spreadsheets and the invent of the eye in the sky.
Sometimes card counters who weren’t proved otherwise were banned merely for winning too much and taking the casinos profits.
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